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Ittihād al-mahākim al-islāmiyya) was a group of Sharia courts that united themselves to form a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia, with Sharif Sheikh Ahmed as their head.
They were also known as the Joint Islamic Courts, Union of Islamic Courts (UIC), Supreme Islamic Courts Council (SICC) Until the end of 2006, they controlled most of southern Somalia and the vast majority of its population, including most major cities such as Jowhar, Kismayo, Beledweyne, and the capital Mogadishu.
The ICU organized a clean-up campaign for the streets of Mogadishu on 20 July.
This was the first time litter and rubbish had been collected in the entire city since it collapsed into chaos over a decade earlier.
After the Somali transitional government defeated the Islamists and took Mogadishu, the Somali Prime Minister alleged that Eritrean soldiers had been captured in Mogadishu.
By January 2009, a reconciliation and powersharing deal was brokered between the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and the Djibouti contingent from the former Islamic Courts Union which resulted in the expansion of the Parliament and the election of Sheik Sharif Ahmed, former leader of the ICU, as President of the Transitional Federal Government.On 5 June 2006, the ICU claimed that they were in control of Mogadishu.Meanwhile, in the United States the Bush administration neither confirmed nor denied support for either side. On 6 June 2006, the ICU further claimed it was in control of all the lands up to 100 kilometers (62 mi) inland from Mogadishu.After the collapse of the Somali government in 1991, a system of sharia-based Islamic courts became the main judicial system, funded through fees paid by litigants.Over time the courts began to offer other services such as education and health care.